ACSM Domain 1 flashcards |

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Initial Client Contact

Assess compatibility, goals, scope, style, and schedule
If compatible, exchange contact information and identify schedule preference --> provide service intro packet and schedule time for initial client consultation appt (client form). If notc compatible, refer to appropriate health and fitness professional

Components of Consultation

Training client agreement - business expectations
PAR-Q - physical activity readiness question form

Risk Factor Age

Men >45
Women >55

Risk Factor Family History

MI, Coronary revascularization, sudden death before 55 yr in father or other male first-degree relative, or before 65 yr old in mother or other female first degree relative

Risk Factor Smoking

current cigarette smoker or those who quit within the previous 6 mo or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke

Risk Factor sedentary lifestlye

not participating in at least 30 min of moderate intensity physical activity on at least 3 days a week for at least 3 months

Risk Factor obesity

BMI > 30kg.m
waist girth >102cm for men
waist girth > 88cm for women

Risk Factor hypertention (high BP)

SBP > 140 mmhg and/or DBP >90 mmhg

Risk Factor dislipidemia

LDL > 130mg/dl
HDL< 40mg/dl
or total > 200 mg/dl

Risk Factor prediabetes

fasting glucose > 100mg/dl <125mg/dl
imparied glucose tolerance > 140mg/dl - <199mg/dl

Negative Risk Factor

HDL >60mg/dl

Ischemia

Pain, discomfort in the chest, neck, jaw, arms, or other areas

Dyspnea

Shortness of breath at rest or with mild exertion

Syncope

dizziness, prevent normal rise in cardiac output

Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea

refers to attacks of severe shortness of breath and coughing that generally occur at night

Ankle edema

sign of heart failure or bilateral chronic venous insufficiency

tachycardia

faster than normal heart rate

intermittent claudication

pain that occurs in a muscle with inadequate blood supply that is stressed by exercise

Social Cognitive Theory

people do not learn behaviors solely by trying them and either succeeding or failing, but rather, the survival of humanity is dependent upon the replication of the actions of others

Transtheoretical Model

Precontemplation
Contemplation
Preparation
Action
Maintenance

Health Belief Theory

theorizes that an individuals beliefs about whether or not she or he is susceptible to disease, and her or his perceptions of the benefits of trying to avoid it, influence her or his readiness to act if they

Theory of planned behavoir

theory that a Human being will attempt to follow the most rational course of action after taking all available variables into consideration, based on their own personal reasoning and perception

Social Ecological Model

model that considers the impact of and connections between individuals and their environments

Classification of Risks

>3 high
< or equal to - 2 moderate
<2

SMART goals

S - specific goals - precise
M - measurable goals - quantifiable
A - attainable - indicate what needs to be done
R - realistic - achievable goals
T - timely - reasonable time

Skeletal system

consists of cartilage, periosteum, bone (osseous) tissue

Axial Skeleton

Skull
Hyoid
Vertebral column
sternum
ribs

Appendicular Skeleton

upper/lower limbs + girdles

anterior

front of the body; ventral

posterior

back of the body;dorsal

superficial

located close to or on the body surface

deep

below the surface

proximal

close to any reference point

distal

farther from any reference point

superior

toward the head; higher (cephalic)

inferior

away from head; lower (caudal)

medial

toward the midline of the body

lateral

away from the midline of the body

ipsilateral

on the same side

contralateral

on the opposite side

unilateral

one side

bilateral

both sides

prone

lying face down

supine

lying face up

valgus

distal segment of joint deviates laterally

varus

distal segment of joint deviates medially

line of gravity

proper body alignment and posture

center of gravity

location of a theoretical point that can be used to represent the total weight of an object

base of support

area of supporting surface of an object such as the feet standing

balance

ability to maintain a position for a given period of time without moving

stability

ability to lean without changing base of support

Lordosis

spine significantly inward in the lower back

kymphosis

abnormal round upper back

scoliosis

sideways S/C shape curve spine

ATP

strength-power (golf swing, throwing)

ATP+PCr

sustained power (sprint)

ATP+PCr+lactid acid

anaerobic power-endurance (200-400m dash)

ETC Oxidative Phosphorylation

aerobic endurance (beyond 800m run)

static (isometric) resistance training

muscle maintains constant length, no joint change in joint position

dynamic (isotonic) resistance training

movement of a joint changes, muscle shortens

Benefits of resistance training

improve muscular strength and endurance
improves aerobic enzyme systems
increases in oxidative enzymes in type IIa and type IIb fibers
promote oxygen delivery

Benefits of CV training

increases functional capacity and relief of CAD
increase in aerobic capacity
reduce myocardial demands at rest/exercise
HR decreased at rest
SBP/DBP decrease

warm up

intent is to prepare muscles and cardiorespiratory system for the upcoming workout

cool down

allows HR, BP, and respiration rate to shift downward and back toward resting levels

Likert-type chart

scale used to gauge the level of soreness for the client
3> reduce intensity or volume dramatically
dehydration can cause muscle damage

CV benefits of exercise

improvement in CV and respiratory function
decreased risk from premature death
increased health benefits

physiological basis for improvements in muscular strength/endurance

adaptations to muscle fibers, contractile proteins, aerobic enzyme systems, capillary supply, and nervous system

Acute BP response

linear increase in SBP with increased exercise, DBP may decrease slightly

Chronic BP response

resting SBP and DBP may decrease; lower BP at fixed submaximal work rate

Postural changes BP

may cause BP to be hypotensive

isotonic

muscle contraction which exerts constant tension (bicep curl)

isomectric (static)

no change in muscle length (squat hold)

isokinetic

muscle resistance throughout the range of motion by controlling speed of movement (leg extension)

concentric

muscle shortening

eccentric

muscle lengthening

suture joint

firbous joint found in the skull

sydesmosis joint

firbous joint interosses membrane between bones (radius/ulna, tibia/fibula)

gomphosis

firbous joint found in teeth

hyaline cartilainous

cartilaginous that permits bone growth and typically fuse

symphyses

strong slightly movable joints (pubic symphysis)

synarthrosis

immoveable joint

amphiarthosis

slightly movable joint

diarthrosis

freely movable joint

synovial joint

diarthrosis joint (ball+socket,pivot, saddle, hinge,plane, ellipsoidal)

hypertrophy

increase in muscular size

atrophy

wasting away or loss of muscle

hyperplasia

increased cell production in a normal tissue

Basic Components of health-related physical fitness

CV fitness-ability of circulatory and respiratory systems to supply oxygen during sustained physical activity
Muscular strength - ability of muscle to exert force
Muscular endurance - ability of muscle to continue to perform without fatigue
Body composition - relative amount of muscle/fat/bone parts of the body
Flexibility - ROM around a joint

Relative Contraindications for exercise testing

tested only after careful evaluation of risk/benft ratio

Absolute contraindications for exercise testing

should not perform exercise tests until conditions are stabilized

test termination

fatigue, predetermined end point, general indications

postexercise procedures

passive cool-down, physiological observations for 5 min, or until HR/BP stabilized

BMI

simple technique (weight/height^2 [703])
does not account for difference in weight composition

WHR (wasit to hip ratio)

simple to perform
good for research data

skinfolds

highly regarded
technician training important
many sites SEE about 3-4%

bioelectrical impedance

fairly accurate
many pretest conditions need to be met

recommended fitness assessments

HR
BP
Body Comp
CV assessment
Muscular Fitness
Flexibility

abnormal signs/symptoms

recognizing signs/symptoms and injuries
stop training session and refer to physician

locations for Measurement of HR

Radial
Brachial
Carotid

WHR sites

Abdomen
Arm
Buttocks/Hips
Calf
forearm
hips/thigh
mid-thigh
waist

Sites for skinfold test

abdomen
triceps
biceps
subscapular
mid axillary
chest
medial calf
thigh
suprailliac

Components for exercise training session

Warm-up 5-10 min low to mod intensity
Conditioning 20-60 min of aerobic/resistance/neuromotor/sports activities
Cool-down 5-10 min of low to mod intensity
Flexibility at least 10 min of stretching after warm-up/cool-down

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