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kinesiology

study of human movement

anterior

toward the front

superior

toward the head

inferior

away from the head, lower

medial

toward the midline of the body

lateral

away from the midline, closer to the side

deep

further from the surface of the body or part

superficial

nearer the surface of the body or part

proximal

closer to a reference point

distal

further from a reference point

posterior

toward the back

sagittal plane

divides the body or body part into right and left sections

frontal plane

(coronal plan)
-divides the body or body part into anterior and posterior sections

Horizontal Plane

(cross-sectional or Transverse Plane)
-divides the body or body part into superior and inferior sections

flexion

decreases the joint angle

extension

increase in the joint angle

rotation

horizontal turning or pivoting

abduction

moving away from the midline

adduction

moving toward the midline

circumduction

360 degree multiplanar movement

elevation

raising the shoulder girdle

depression

lowering the shoulder girdle

horizontal shoulder abduction

movement away from the midline in the horizontal plane

horizontal shoulder adduction

movement toward the midline in horizontal plane

lateral flexion

decrease in joint angle

supination

medial rotation of the lateral digit

pronation

lateral rotation of the lateral digit

protraction

slight external rotation of the scapula away from the spine

retraction

slight internal rotation of the scapula toward the spine

neck

-r/l rotation
-flexion/extension
-lateral r/l flexion

trunk

r/l rotation
-flexion/extension
-lateral r/l flexion
-circumduction

Shoulder girdle

-scapular protraction/retraction
-scapular abduction/adduction
-elevation/depression

shoulder

m/l or i/e rotation
-flexion/extension
-abduction/adduction
-horizontal ab/ adduction
-circumduction

elbow

-flexion/ extension

forearm

-supination/pronation

wrist

-flexion/extension
-abduction/adduction

hip

m/l or i/e rotation
-flexion/extension
-circumduction

knee

flexion/extension

ankle

-supination/pronation
-inversion/eversion
-dorsiflexion/plantarflexion

appendicular skeletal system

shoulder girdle, arms, wrists, hands, pelvic girdle, legs, ankles, feet

axial skeletal system

skull, spine, ribs, sternum

skeletal system fxn

-protection of soft tissues
-resource reservoir
-red blood cell construction
-mechanical leverage

Diaphysis

shaft

epiphysis

ends of bones

epiphyseal plate

(growth plate)
-where long bones grow

metaphysis

in mature bone where growth plate is no longer

cartilage

covers articulations, semi-rigid connective tissue that reduces friction

synovial joints

-articulations of bone
-3 types: fibrous, cartilaginous, synovial
-joint cavity, cartilage on articulations, capsule, lined by synovial membrane

fibrous

connective made with dense connective tissue

cartilaginous

bones united by cartilage

synovial

most common joint, supported by capsule and ligaments

hinge

elbow, knee

gliding

wrist

ellipsoidal

wrist

ball and socket

hip, shoulder

pivot

neck (atlantoaxial)
forearm (radialulnar)

saddle

thumb

lever systems

movement occurs when energy is transformed into a micro-contraction in the sarcomere
-contractions of the full muscle result in a pull on a tendon
-tendons pull on the attachment on the bone
-the body uses the mechanical advantage of leverage to assist w/ movement
-lever systems use a fulcrum in addition to a load arm and an effort arm

class 1 lever

fulcrum in the middle
-assists w/ balance
-represented by a seesaw

class 2 lever

load in the middle
-assists w/ power
-visualize a wheelbarrow

class 3 lever

effort in the middle
-adv of ROM
-biceps-focus on insertion
-75% of our joints

pectoralis major

responsible for shoulder horizontal adduction

posterior deltoid

the antagonist partner of pectoralis major, shoulder horizontal abduction

mid trapezius

responsible for scapular retraction, the pulling of the scapulas toward the spine

pectoralis minor

the mid trapezius opposing muscle
-protracts or slightly rotates the scapulas away from the spine

upper trapezius

the primary mover for shoulder girdle elevation

lower trapezius

responsible for shoulder girdle depression

latissimus dorsi

agonist for shoulder adduction

medial deltoid

opposing muscle to the latissimus dorsi
-the agonist for should abduction

supraspinatus

(part of the rotator cuff)
-initial abduction

infraspinatus

(part of the rotator cuff)
-external rotation

teres minor

(part of the rotator cuff)
-external rotation

subscapularis

(part of the rotator cuff)
-medial rotation

biceps brachialis

primary mover for elbow flexion

triceps brachialis

the biceps brachialis opposing muscle
-elbow extension

erector spinae

-on the posterior side of the body, extends the trunk

rectus abdominus

on the anterior side of the body
-responsible for trunk flexion

right/left internal and external obliques

-rotation of the trunk to either side is the resulting efforts of the internal and external obliques

gluteus maximus

contracts to produce a hip extension

iliopsoas

flexes the hip when recruited

quadriceps

responsible for knee extension

hamstrings

the opposing muscle of the quadriceps
-flexes the knee

hip adductors

adduct the hip (bring the hip toward the body)

hip abductors

abduct the hip (take away from body)
-the lateral muscles that abduct the hip include the gluteus min and IT band

tibialis anterior

contracts and produces ankle dorsiflexion

gastrocnemius/ soleus

plantarflex the ankle

isotonic- concentric contraction

muscle length shortens

isotonic-eccentric contraction

-muscle length extends

isometric contraction

no joint angle or muscle length changes

pectoralis major

horizontal shoulder adduction

pectoralis minor

scapular protraction

external/internal intercostals

ribcage expansion/retraction

rectus abdominus

trunk flexion

external/internal obliques

trunk rotation, trunk flexion

transversus abdominus

trunk rotation

anterior deltoid

shoulder flexion

biceps brachii

elbow flexion

brachialis

elbow flexion

brachioradialis

elbow flexion

rhomboids

scapular retraction

gluteus medius

hip abduction, medial rotation

gluteus minimus

medial rotation

piriformis

lateral rotation

IT Band (iliotibial band)

hip abduction

adductor magnus

(medial)
-hip adduction

weak erector spinae

-decrease in lumbar curve
-straight back
-posterior pelvic tilt

tight erector spinae

-increase in lumbar curve
-lordosis
-anterior pelvic tilt

contraindicated exercises for low back probs

-leg press
-spinal flexion (sit-ups)
-bilateral straight leg exercises

high risk stretches

-spinal flexion
-hurdler's stretch
-neck circles
-knee hyperflexion
-yoga plow

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