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principles of physics related to energy and force as they apply to the human body




further from the trunk


above, toward the head


lower than, toward the feet


toward the front


toward the back


closer to the midline


further from the midline


sagittal plane, frontal plane, transverse plane


makes a division into right and left portions


makes a division into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions


makes a division into upper (superior) and lower (inferior) portions


movement around a longitudinal axis, either toward or away from the midline


a combination of flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction


turning the sole of the foot away from the midline


turning the sole of the foot toward the midline

Bones of the skull, vertebral column, ribs, and sternum...



serves as the main axial support for the body

4 Major curvatures of the adult vertebral column

cervical curve, thoracic curve, lumbar curve,
sacral curve

KYPHOSIS "primary curves"

curves of the thoracic and sacral regions

LORDOSIS "secondary curves"

curves of the cervical and lumbar region

Commonly found abnormal curves in the sagittal plane

hyperkyphosis and hyperlordosis


exaggerated posterior thoracic curvature


exaggerated anterior lumbar curvature

Commonly found abnormal curve in the frontal plane



midline of the chest

What are the 3 parts of the sternum?

manubrium, body, xiphoid process

RF for family history

myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization or sudden death to a 1st degree family member when >55 male, >65 female

RF for cigarette smoking

within 6 months

Risk factor for Dyslipidemia LDL

Lgreater than 130 mg/dL

RF Dyslipidemia Total Cholesterol

greater than 200 mg/dL

RF Dyslipidemia low HDL

less than 40 mg/dL

RF Sedentary minutes of activity, days of week, past # of months

less than 30 min/day, 3 days/week, for at least 3 months

RF Prediabetes fasting blood glucose

greater than or equal to 100 mg/dL up to 126

greater than or equal to 126 mg/dL

Fasting Blood Glucose for Diabetes diagnosis

RF for Obesity

body mass of greater then or equal to 30kg/m2; waist girthgreater than 102 cm for men and 88 cm for women

RF Age men, women

45 men, 55 women

Negative Risk Factor

HDL greater than 60 mg/dL

RF for hypertensive

systolic greater than or equal to 140; diastolic greater then or equal to 90; confirmed by 2 separate occasions or on hypertension meds


excessivly high amounts of body fat or adipose tissue in relation to lean body mass


increased body weight, in relation to height when compared to some standard of acceptable or desirable weight

percent fat

the total amount of weight that is measured as fat tissue

body mass index BMI

the height to weight ratio can be misleading because it does not consider body type

lean body mass

not fat tissue: muscle, bone, skin etc

anorexia nervosa

the disorder of self-induced starvation

bulimia nervosa

the psychologically addictive cycle of binging/purging

USRDA food pyramid

1. fat, oils & sweets: use sparingly
2. milk, yogurt &cheese 2-3 servings;
3. meat, poultry, fish, dry beans, nuts, eggs: 2-3 servings;
4. fruits: 3-5 serv;
5. veggies: 3-5 serv.
6. bread, cereal, rice, & pasta: 6-11 serv

female athlete triad

amenorrhea, osteoporosis, and eating disorders; when left untreated they damage the musculoskeletal and reproductive systems

# of kilocalories in one gram

Carbo= 4; fats=9; protein=4; alcohol=7

guidelines for losing weight

500-1000 cal daily to lose 1-2 lbs. per wk; same to increase


equivalent to losing 1 lb of fat 3500cal

waist-hip ratio

Hips/Waist (ex. 45" waist and 36" hips... 36/45=.8)
ratios above .86 for women and .95 for men indicate abdominal adiposity

Heart Rate (HR)

total # of times the heart contracts in one minute, increases with work-rate during exercise

Stroke Volume

amount of blood pumped from the left ventricle in one beat

Cardiac Output

the amount of blood pumped from the heart in one minute

Blood Pressure

arterial pressure providing force for blood flow (systolic and diastolic pressure)

Arteriovenous Oxygen Difference

difference between oxygen content of arterial and venous blood

Blood Flow

distribution of the cardiac output

Maximum Oxygen Consumption

highest rate and amount of oxygen achieved at maximal physical exertion

Types of muscle tissue

cardiac, smooth, and skeletal

Cardiac muscle

cardiac muscle tissue is involuntary, it is the tissue of the heart

smooth muscle

involuntary muscle tissue that lines the arterial walls and organs of the body

skeletal muscle

voluntary and made up of striated fibers


the study of human movement


mineral reservior, internal skeleton (levers)


where two bones meet (fulcrum and axis)

muscle tissue

elastic tissue with contractile properties (pulley)


connective tissue that connects muscles to bone


connective tissue that connects bone to bone


white fibrous tissue that cushions surfaces and prevents friction (cushions bones)


front/ back


below/ above


closer to midline/further from midline


closer to trunk/further from trunk


movement away/into from midline

horizontal abduction

the row

horizontal adduction

chest press

supination/ pronation

rotational movement, results in the palm facing upward/downward


decrease joint angle (elbow curl)


increase in joint angle

lateral flexion

decrease in joint angle (spine side bend, love handles)

Physical Activity

bodily (musculoskeletal movement leading to caloric expenditure


movement done for improvement in one or more components of fitness

5 components of Physical Fitness

a group of characteristics a person achieves/possesses related to physical activity and cardiorepiratory, muscle endurance, muscle strength, flexibility, body composition


increases the capacity of the heart, lungs, and blood carrying vessels to deliver oxygen; also called aerobic fitness

muscle endurance

refers to a muscle's ability to perform repeated contractions or hold static contractions

muscle strength

the amount of force a muscle can exert in a single all-out effort (1 Rep Mas/1RM)


refers to a joint's range of mobility (ROM)

Body Composition

refers to th ratio of lean body mass compared to fat mass

Principle of Adaptation/Overload Training and Progression

-greater then normal demand is placed upon muscles,
-to enhance the muscular fitness, the system must be progressively overloaded
-tension required for strength gain is about 60% - 80% of 1RM
-fleck and kraemer recommend 75 - 90%

Progression involves increasing/changing one or more of the exercise training components to promote adaptations

Principle of Specificity of Training

The body adapts to specific exercise training stimulus with specific physical and physiological adaptations.

Cardio adaptations

-resting heart rate decreases by approx 10 - 15 bpm
-SV increases both at rest and during exercise
-Resting SBP/DBP may decrease (if prev elevated)

Exercise Program Components

(FITTE) Frequency, Intensity, Time/Duration, Type/Mode, Enjoyment

Warm up Considerations

Should include appropriate cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal activity

Cool Down Considerations

Appropriate cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal activity serving to enhance venous return and decrease the chance of postexercise hypotension during recovery

Initial treatment for Musculoskeletal injury for the first 24-72 hrs

(RICES) rest (prevents further injury, ice (reduces pain, swelling, and initiates inflammatory response) compression (reduces swelling and bleeding) elevation (controls edema and decreases blood flow) stabilization (assists in muscle relaxation, diminishing spasm

Symptoms of Angina (chest pain) and myocardial infaction (heart attack)

a. chest pain, b. pressure discomfort in the chest, c.left jaw, neck or shoulder-may radiate distally, d. shortness of breath and lightheadedness, e. back pain, which may be experienced by some women

Treatment for chest pain and heart attack symptoms

a. stop exercise immediately and place person ina comfortable sitting or lying position, b. 911, monitor HR, and be prepared to begin CPR, c. Automated External Defibrillator AED may be used if cardiac arrest

Signals of heat exhaustion

a. cool, moist pale, ashen, or flushed skin b. headache, nausea, dizziness, c. weakness, exhaustion d. heavy sweating e. body temp will be near normal

Signals of heat stroke

1. red, hot dry skin 2. rapid weak pulse, shallow breathing 3. changes in the level of consciousness 4. vomiting 5. body temp will be very high as high as 105

Hydration recommendations according to ACSM

approx. 3-6 ounces of water every 1-2 miles of the race

ATP-PC phosphagen system (anaerobic)

25-30 seconds of high intesity work (spints, weight lifting)

Anaerobic Glycolysis/Lactic Acid System (anaerobic)

1-2 min of high intensity work 400-800m distance sprint

Oxygen System (aerobic)

fuels activities lasting more than 2-3 min. Capacity is limited only by oxygen and fuel avail. to the cell


same Side


opposite side


one side


both sides


lying face up


lying face down

upper respiratory system

nose, sinuses, pharynx, larynx ...filters air

lower respiratory system

trachea, bronchi, bronchiloes, alveoli...puts oxygen into blood

anatomical sites of pulse

carotid, brachial, radial, femoral

type 1 fibers

slow twitch, slow oxidative and red twitch fibers (aerobic)

type IIA fibers

have aerobic and anaerobic capabilities and refered to as intermediate fibers, continuum fibers, fast oxidative glycolitic fibers

type IIB

anaerobic in nature. refered as fast glycolitic fibers

sliding filament theory

the events that occur b/w actin and myosin during muscle contraction and relaxation

-when nerve impulse is received, the cross bridges of myosin will put the actin filaments towards the center of the sarcomere and tension is created

neuromuscular activation

stimulus for vol. physical activity initiates in the brain and is then transformed into a movement pattern

antihypertensive meds

reduces high blood pressure


reduces angina/chest pain


relaxes bronchial passageways


reduces blood sugar


prevents/controls abnormal heart rhythms


affects behavior


prevents system of allergic response


widens blood vessal


reduces resting and exercise heart rate and blood pressure


may extend endurance in moderate aerobic exercise


dehydrating-may impair exercise tolerance and increase risk of heart injury


may elevate HR,BP and respiratory response


Acute-onset muscle soreness; muscle fatigue and discomfort dimininishes when exercise stops


delayed onset muscle soreness;muscle discomfort 24-36 hr after exercise

overuse/chronic muscle and joint injury

tendonitis, fasciitis, bursitis, osteoarthritis


inflammation of a tendon


inflammation of the fascia; fascia is a connective tissue that surrounds muscles, groups of muscles, blood vessels, and nerves, binding those structures together in much the same manner as plastic wrap can be used to hold the contents of sandwiches together


Bursitis is inflammation of the fluid-filled sac (bursa) that lies between a tendon and skin, or between a tendon and bone


chronic breakdown of cartilage in the joints

normal acute cardiorespiratory response to aerobic exercise

elevated HR, SV, Cardiac output, BP, Blood Flow, Arteriovenous oxygen difference, pulmonary ventilation and oxygen consumption

pulmonary ventilation

vol of air exchanged per minute


any interaction b/w 2 objects producing a change in magnitude or direction of motion


rotary force

1st class lever

primarly for balance;see saw, head on cervical vertebrea

2nd class lever

primarly for power; wheel borrw, plater flexion during walking

3rd class lever

range of motion; shovel, exbow flexion; we use this the most

isometric/static contraction

tension is created within the muscle fiber, but the fiber change length and there is no change in joint angle F=R

Isotonic/dynamic contraction

muscle fibers change length and joint angles; Work= force x distance; can concentric or eccentric


muscle fibers creating cross bridges while shortening in length against the pull of gravity F>R


muscle fibers creating cross bridges while returning to resting length while going with gravity R>F

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