ACSM STUDY GUIDE flashcards |

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### BIOMECHANICS

principles of physics related to energy and force as they apply to the human body

### PROXIMAL

CLOSER TO THE TRUNK

### DISTAL

further from the trunk

### INFERIOR (CAUDAL)

lower than, toward the feet

toward the front

toward the back

### MEDIAL

closer to the midline

### LATERAL

further from the midline

### THREE CARDINAL BODY PLANES

sagittal plane, frontal plane, transverse plane

### SAGITTAL PLANE

makes a division into right and left portions

### FRONTAL PLANE

makes a division into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions

### TRANSVERSE PLANE

makes a division into upper (superior) and lower (inferior) portions

### ROTATION

movement around a longitudinal axis, either toward or away from the midline

### CIRCUMDUCTION

a combination of flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction

### EVERSION

turning the sole of the foot away from the midline

### INVERSION

turning the sole of the foot toward the midline

AXIAL SKELETON

### VERTEBRAL COLUMN (SPINE)

serves as the main axial support for the body

### 4 Major curvatures of the adult vertebral column

cervical curve, thoracic curve, lumbar curve,
sacral curve

### KYPHOSIS "primary curves"

curves of the thoracic and sacral regions

### LORDOSIS "secondary curves"

curves of the cervical and lumbar region

### Commonly found abnormal curves in the sagittal plane

hyperkyphosis and hyperlordosis

### HYPERKYPHOSIS

exaggerated posterior thoracic curvature

### HYPERLORDOSIS

exaggerated anterior lumbar curvature

scoliosis

### STERNUM

midline of the chest

### What are the 3 parts of the sternum?

manubrium, body, xiphoid process

### RF for family history

myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization or sudden death to a 1st degree family member when >55 male, >65 female

within 6 months

### Risk factor for Dyslipidemia LDL

Lgreater than 130 mg/dL

### RF Dyslipidemia Total Cholesterol

greater than 200 mg/dL

### RF Dyslipidemia low HDL

less than 40 mg/dL

### RF Sedentary minutes of activity, days of week, past # of months

less than 30 min/day, 3 days/week, for at least 3 months

### RF Prediabetes fasting blood glucose

greater than or equal to 100 mg/dL up to 126

### greater than or equal to 126 mg/dL

Fasting Blood Glucose for Diabetes diagnosis

### RF for Obesity

body mass of greater then or equal to 30kg/m2; waist girthgreater than 102 cm for men and 88 cm for women

45 men, 55 women

### Negative Risk Factor

HDL greater than 60 mg/dL

### RF for hypertensive

systolic greater than or equal to 140; diastolic greater then or equal to 90; confirmed by 2 separate occasions or on hypertension meds

### obesity

excessivly high amounts of body fat or adipose tissue in relation to lean body mass

### overweight

increased body weight, in relation to height when compared to some standard of acceptable or desirable weight

### percent fat

the total amount of weight that is measured as fat tissue

### body mass index BMI

the height to weight ratio can be misleading because it does not consider body type

### lean body mass

not fat tissue: muscle, bone, skin etc

### anorexia nervosa

the disorder of self-induced starvation

### bulimia nervosa

the psychologically addictive cycle of binging/purging

### USRDA food pyramid

1. fat, oils & sweets: use sparingly
2. milk, yogurt &cheese 2-3 servings;
3. meat, poultry, fish, dry beans, nuts, eggs: 2-3 servings;
4. fruits: 3-5 serv;
5. veggies: 3-5 serv.
6. bread, cereal, rice, & pasta: 6-11 serv

amenorrhea, osteoporosis, and eating disorders; when left untreated they damage the musculoskeletal and reproductive systems

### # of kilocalories in one gram

Carbo= 4; fats=9; protein=4; alcohol=7

### guidelines for losing weight

500-1000 cal daily to lose 1-2 lbs. per wk; same to increase

### kilocalaries

equivalent to losing 1 lb of fat 3500cal

### waist-hip ratio

Hips/Waist (ex. 45" waist and 36" hips... 36/45=.8)
ratios above .86 for women and .95 for men indicate abdominal adiposity

### Heart Rate (HR)

total # of times the heart contracts in one minute, increases with work-rate during exercise

### Stroke Volume

amount of blood pumped from the left ventricle in one beat

### Cardiac Output

the amount of blood pumped from the heart in one minute

### Blood Pressure

arterial pressure providing force for blood flow (systolic and diastolic pressure)

### Arteriovenous Oxygen Difference

difference between oxygen content of arterial and venous blood

### Blood Flow

distribution of the cardiac output

### Maximum Oxygen Consumption

highest rate and amount of oxygen achieved at maximal physical exertion

### Types of muscle tissue

cardiac, smooth, and skeletal

### Cardiac muscle

cardiac muscle tissue is involuntary, it is the tissue of the heart

### smooth muscle

involuntary muscle tissue that lines the arterial walls and organs of the body

### skeletal muscle

voluntary and made up of striated fibers

### Kinesiology

the study of human movement

### Bones

mineral reservior, internal skeleton (levers)

### joints

where two bones meet (fulcrum and axis)

### muscle tissue

elastic tissue with contractile properties (pulley)

### tendons

connective tissue that connects muscles to bone

### ligaments

connective tissue that connects bone to bone

### cartilage

white fibrous tissue that cushions surfaces and prevents friction (cushions bones)

front/ back

below/ above

### medial/lateral

closer to midline/further from midline

### proximal/distal

closer to trunk/further from trunk

movement away/into from midline

the row

chest press

### supination/ pronation

rotational movement, results in the palm facing upward/downward

### flexion

decrease joint angle (elbow curl)

### extension

increase in joint angle

### lateral flexion

decrease in joint angle (spine side bend, love handles)

### Physical Activity

bodily (musculoskeletal movement leading to caloric expenditure

### Exercise

movement done for improvement in one or more components of fitness

### 5 components of Physical Fitness

a group of characteristics a person achieves/possesses related to physical activity and cardiorepiratory, muscle endurance, muscle strength, flexibility, body composition

### cardiorespiratory

increases the capacity of the heart, lungs, and blood carrying vessels to deliver oxygen; also called aerobic fitness

### muscle endurance

refers to a muscle's ability to perform repeated contractions or hold static contractions

### muscle strength

the amount of force a muscle can exert in a single all-out effort (1 Rep Mas/1RM)

### flexibility

refers to a joint's range of mobility (ROM)

### Body Composition

refers to th ratio of lean body mass compared to fat mass

-greater then normal demand is placed upon muscles,
-to enhance the muscular fitness, the system must be progressively overloaded
-tension required for strength gain is about 60% - 80% of 1RM
-fleck and kraemer recommend 75 - 90%

Progression involves increasing/changing one or more of the exercise training components to promote adaptations

### Principle of Specificity of Training

The body adapts to specific exercise training stimulus with specific physical and physiological adaptations.

-resting heart rate decreases by approx 10 - 15 bpm
-SV increases both at rest and during exercise
-Resting SBP/DBP may decrease (if prev elevated)

### Exercise Program Components

(FITTE) Frequency, Intensity, Time/Duration, Type/Mode, Enjoyment

### Warm up Considerations

Should include appropriate cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal activity

### Cool Down Considerations

Appropriate cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal activity serving to enhance venous return and decrease the chance of postexercise hypotension during recovery

### Initial treatment for Musculoskeletal injury for the first 24-72 hrs

(RICES) rest (prevents further injury, ice (reduces pain, swelling, and initiates inflammatory response) compression (reduces swelling and bleeding) elevation (controls edema and decreases blood flow) stabilization (assists in muscle relaxation, diminishing spasm

### Symptoms of Angina (chest pain) and myocardial infaction (heart attack)

a. chest pain, b. pressure discomfort in the chest, c.left jaw, neck or shoulder-may radiate distally, d. shortness of breath and lightheadedness, e. back pain, which may be experienced by some women

### Treatment for chest pain and heart attack symptoms

a. stop exercise immediately and place person ina comfortable sitting or lying position, b. 911, monitor HR, and be prepared to begin CPR, c. Automated External Defibrillator AED may be used if cardiac arrest

### Signals of heat exhaustion

a. cool, moist pale, ashen, or flushed skin b. headache, nausea, dizziness, c. weakness, exhaustion d. heavy sweating e. body temp will be near normal

### Signals of heat stroke

1. red, hot dry skin 2. rapid weak pulse, shallow breathing 3. changes in the level of consciousness 4. vomiting 5. body temp will be very high as high as 105

### Hydration recommendations according to ACSM

approx. 3-6 ounces of water every 1-2 miles of the race

### ATP-PC phosphagen system (anaerobic)

25-30 seconds of high intesity work (spints, weight lifting)

### Anaerobic Glycolysis/Lactic Acid System (anaerobic)

1-2 min of high intensity work 400-800m distance sprint

### Oxygen System (aerobic)

fuels activities lasting more than 2-3 min. Capacity is limited only by oxygen and fuel avail. to the cell

same Side

opposite side

one side

both sides

lying face up

lying face down

### upper respiratory system

nose, sinuses, pharynx, larynx ...filters air

### lower respiratory system

trachea, bronchi, bronchiloes, alveoli...puts oxygen into blood

### type 1 fibers

slow twitch, slow oxidative and red twitch fibers (aerobic)

### type IIA fibers

have aerobic and anaerobic capabilities and refered to as intermediate fibers, continuum fibers, fast oxidative glycolitic fibers

### type IIB

anaerobic in nature. refered as fast glycolitic fibers

### sliding filament theory

the events that occur b/w actin and myosin during muscle contraction and relaxation

-when nerve impulse is received, the cross bridges of myosin will put the actin filaments towards the center of the sarcomere and tension is created

### neuromuscular activation

stimulus for vol. physical activity initiates in the brain and is then transformed into a movement pattern

### antihypertensive meds

reduces high blood pressure

### anti-anginal

reduces angina/chest pain

### brochodilator

relaxes bronchial passageways

### hypoglycemic

reduces blood sugar

### anti-arrhythmic

prevents/controls abnormal heart rhythms

affects behavior

### antihistamine

prevents system of allergic response

### vasodilator

widens blood vessal

### beta-blocker

reduces resting and exercise heart rate and blood pressure

### caffine

may extend endurance in moderate aerobic exercise

### alcohol

dehydrating-may impair exercise tolerance and increase risk of heart injury

### nicotine

may elevate HR,BP and respiratory response

### A.O.M.S

Acute-onset muscle soreness; muscle fatigue and discomfort dimininishes when exercise stops

### D.O.M.S

delayed onset muscle soreness;muscle discomfort 24-36 hr after exercise

### overuse/chronic muscle and joint injury

tendonitis, fasciitis, bursitis, osteoarthritis

### tendonitis

inflammation of a tendon

### fasciitis

inflammation of the fascia; fascia is a connective tissue that surrounds muscles, groups of muscles, blood vessels, and nerves, binding those structures together in much the same manner as plastic wrap can be used to hold the contents of sandwiches together

### bursitis

Bursitis is inflammation of the fluid-filled sac (bursa) that lies between a tendon and skin, or between a tendon and bone

### osteoarthritis

chronic breakdown of cartilage in the joints

### normal acute cardiorespiratory response to aerobic exercise

elevated HR, SV, Cardiac output, BP, Blood Flow, Arteriovenous oxygen difference, pulmonary ventilation and oxygen consumption

### pulmonary ventilation

vol of air exchanged per minute

### Force

any interaction b/w 2 objects producing a change in magnitude or direction of motion

rotary force

### 1st class lever

primarly for balance;see saw, head on cervical vertebrea

### 2nd class lever

primarly for power; wheel borrw, plater flexion during walking

### 3rd class lever

range of motion; shovel, exbow flexion; we use this the most

### isometric/static contraction

tension is created within the muscle fiber, but the fiber change length and there is no change in joint angle F=R

### Isotonic/dynamic contraction

muscle fibers change length and joint angles; Work= force x distance; can concentric or eccentric

### concentric

muscle fibers creating cross bridges while shortening in length against the pull of gravity F>R

### eccentric

muscle fibers creating cross bridges while returning to resting length while going with gravity R>F

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