ACSM CPT Anatomy, Kinesiology, BioMechanics, Physiology flashcards |

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Definition of Bio Mechanics

Study of motion and causes of motion of living things using a branch of physics known as mechanics

Definition of Kinesiology

Study of mechanics of human movement and specifically elevates muscles, joints, and skeletal structures in their movement

Kinesiology is based on what 3 science fields

1. Biomechanics
2. Musculoskeletal Anatomy
3. Neuromuscular Physiology

Medial

Toward the midline of the body

Lateral

Away from the midline of the body; to the side

Ipsilateral

On the same side

Contralateral

On the opposite side

Unilateral

One side

Bilateral

Both sides

Prone

Lying face down

Supine

Lying face up

Valgus

Distal segment of a joint that deviates laterally

Varus

Distal segment of a joint that deviates medially

What are the 3 anatomical planes of the body

1. Sagittal
2. Frontal (coronal)
3. Transverse (horizontal)

Flexion

Decrease the joint angle (anteriorly in the sagittal plane)

Extension

Increase the joint angle (posteriorly in the sagittal plane)

Abduction

Movement away from the midline of the body (movement in frontal plane)

Adduction

Movement toward the midline of the body (movement in the frontal plane)

Horizontal Abduction

Movement away from the midline of the body in the transverse plane (horizontal humerus movement during shoulder flexion at 90)

Internal (medial) rotation

Rotation in the transverse plane toward the midline of the body

External (lateral) rotation

Rotation in the transverse plane away from the midline of the body

Lateral flexion (right or left)

Movement away from the midline of the body in the frontal plane (movement used to describe neck and trunk movements)

Rotation (right or left)

Right or left rotation in the transverse plane (describes neck and trunk movement)

Elevation

Movement of the scapula superior in the frontal plane

Depression

Movement of the scapula inferior in the frontal plane

Retraction

Movement of the scapula toward the spine in the frontal plane

Protraction

Movement of the scapula away fro the spine in the frontal plane

Upward rotation

Superior and lateral movements of the inferior angle of the scapula in the frontal plane

Downward rotation

Inferior and medial movement of the inferior angle of the scapula in the frontal plane

Circumduction

A compound circular movement involving; flexion, extension, abduction, adduction...

Radial deviation

Abduction of the wrist in the frontal plane

Ulnar deviation

Adduction of the wrist in the frontal plane

Opposition

Diagonal movement of thumb across palm to make contact with 5th digit

Eversion

Abducting the ankle

Inversion

Adducting the ankle

Dorsiflexion

Flexing ankle, foot moves anteriorly in the sagittal plane

Plantarflexion

Extending the ankle, foot moves posteriorly in the sagittal plane

Pronation (foot/ankle)

Combined movements of abduction / eversion resulting in lowering of medial margin of the foot

Supination (foot/ankle)

Combined movements of adduction / inversion resulting in raising of medial margin of the foot

What are 3 primary anatomical structures of the musculoskeletal system

1. Bones
2. Joints
3. Muscles

The skeletal system consists of:

Cartilage, Periosteum, and bone tissue

What are functions of bones in regards to the skeletal system

support: soft tissue, protect internal organs, source of nutrients and blood constituents.

Axial skeleton is composed (SSHVR):

Skull, hyhoid, vertebral column, sternum, ribs

Main portion of a long bone (or shaft) is known as the

Diaphysis

The end of the bone(s) are termed the

Epiphysis

Region of mature bone where the diaphysis joins the epiphysis is known as the:

Metaphysis

The Metaphysis region of bone is synonymous are also known as the

Epiphyseal plate (immature bones this is the growth plate)

Cavity inside the diaphysis is composed of:

Bone marrow

What is term used to describe the outer covering of bones

Periosteum

What are functions of the Periosteum

1. Attachments for ligaments/tendons
2. Bone growth
3. Repair
4. Nutrition

What are (2) types of bones

1. Compact (dense)
2. Cancellous (spongy)

Examples of long bones

Femur, humerus, ulna, radius,

Examples of short bones

Tarsals, carpals

Examples of flat bones

Sternum, ribs, scapula, pelvis

Examples of irregular bones

Vertebral column, sacrum, coccyx

Examples of sesamoid bones

Patella

What are 5 distinct features of a synovial joint

1. Enclosed by fibrous joint capsule
2. Joint capsule encloses joint cavity
3. Joint cavity is lined with synovial membrane
4. Synovial fluid occupies the joint cavity

3 Joint classifications

(1) Fibrous(skull, tibia, fibula, tibiofibular), (2)Cartilaginous (sternum and rib), (3)Synovial (Hinge, Ellipsoidal, Saddle, Ball/Socket, Pivot, Plane)

"Open-Chain" joint movement

Distal segment moves in space (more often "open pack" ligaments most loose)

"Closed-Chain" joint movement

Distal segment remains closed in space (more often "closed pack" maximum tautness of joint capsule)

Joints with excessive and restricted ROM are respectively termed:

Hypermobile and Hypomobile

5 factors that account for joint stability (LMFAJ)

1. Ligaments
2. Muscles and tendons
3. Fascia
4. Atmospheric pressure
5. Joint Bony Structure

Definition of a tendon

Dense cords of connective tissue anchoring muscle to periosteum of bone

4 Types of Parallel arrangement muscles in regard to the angle of pull

Fusiform (spindle), Longitudinal (straplike), Quadrate (four-sided flat), Fan-shape/Triangular (radiate - Pec major e.g.)

What direction do muscle fibers in regard to the angle of pull Pennate muscle

Oblique to the angle of pull

Insertion

Muscle attachment on the distal bone that moves more

3 Examples of opposing pairs of muscle groups:

1. Flexor-extensor
2. Internal-external rotator
3. Abductor-adductor

Muscle or group of muscles responsible for the action or movement

Prime mover or agonist

Opposing muscle group that relax to permit the primary movement.

Antagonist

Muscle group that acts as a "brake."

Antagonist

Muscle group that supports primary movement muscle group

Synergists

Muscle group that also acts as fixators or stabilizers

Synergists

Scapulothoracic joint movement associated with performing a Shoulder Shrug

Elevation

Scapulothoracic joint movement associated with performing a push up

Protraction

Scapulothoracic joint movement associated with performing a seated row

Retraction

Shoulder joint movement associated with performing a Dumbell front raise or incline bench press

Flexion

Shoulder joint movement associated with performing a Dumbbell pull over or chin up

Extension

Shoulder joint movement associated with performing a Dumbbell lateral raise or dumbbell press

Abduction

Shoulder joint movement associated with performing a Lat pull down, seated row, cable cross-over, or a flat bench fly

Adduction

Shoulder joint movement associated with performing a prone reverse dumbbell fly or reverse cable fly

Horizontal abduction

Shoulder joint movement associated with performing a flat bench chest fly, pec dec, or cable cross-over

Horizontal adduction

Shoulder joint movement associated with performing a bent-over row, rotator cuff exercises, parallel bar dip

Internal rotation

Shoulder joint movement associated with performing rotator cuff exercises - dumbbell side lying or cable in, or external rotator cuff - dumbbell side lying

External rotation

Elbow joint movement associated with performing dumbbell, preacher, or hammer curls

Flexion

Elbow joint movement associated with performing dips, pulley tricep extension, close grip bench, dumbbell kick back

Extension

Radioulnar joint movement associated with a dumbbell curl twisting up

Supination

Radioulnar joint movement associated with a dumbbell twisting down

Pronation

Wrist joint movement associated with a dumbbell wrist curl

Flexion

Wrist joint movement associated with a dumbbell reverse wrist curl

Extension

Wrist joint movements associated with both wrist curls and reverse wrist curls

Abduction and adduction

Hip joint movement associated with leg raise, sit-up, or machine crunch

Flexion

Hip joint movement associated with performing a squat, leg press, lunge, or machine leg extension

Extension

Knee joint movement associated with performing a leg curl

Flexion

Knee joint movement associated with performing a lunge, squats or machine leg extension

Extension

Ankle joint movement associated with performing calf raise

Plantar flexion

What are the 3 bones of the shoulder region

1. Humerus
2. Scapula
3. Clavicle

The shoulder region (GASS) is composed of what 4 joints?

1. Genohumeral (shoulder)
2. Acromioclavicular
3. Sternoclavicular
4. Scapulothoracic

What are 4 movements of the shoulder

1. Abduction-adduction
2. Horizontal abduction-adduction
3. Flexion-extension and circumduction
4. Internal-external rotation

Anterior muscles of the shoulder joint

1. pec major
2. subscapularis
3. coracobrachialis
4. biceps brachii

Posterior muscles of the shoulder joint

1. infraspinatus
2. teres minor

Superior muscles of the shoulder joint

1. Deltoid
2. Supraspinatus

Inferior muscles of the shoulder joint

1. Latissimus dorsi
2. Teres Major
3. Long head of the tricep brachii

Anterior and Posterior deltoids

An imbalance often exists Anterior > Posterior. Swimmer's or Thrower's shoulder

Identify muscles in the rotator cuff

SITS

Rhomboids and trapezius muscles exist

Posterior shoulder girdle

Pec minor, serratus anterior, and subclavius exist

Anterior shoulder girdle

What is the primary factor of impingement syndrome regarding the shoulder?

Muscle imbalance

What is the cause of Thoracic outlet syndrome regarding the shoulder?

Compression of neurovascular bundle. Experience weakness, pain, tingling/numbness in 4th and 5th digits of the hand.

Common reasons for shoulder (Glenohumeral) dislocation

Excessive abduction, external rotation, or extension of the shoulder

3 ligaments that stabilize the elbow

1. Ulnar (medial) collateral ligament
2. Radial (lateral) collateral ligament
3. Annular ligament

Articulations in the elbow (synovial) joint are essentially

Hinge joints

Anterior muscles of the arm (elbow)

1. Biceps brachii
2. Brachialis
3. Brachioradialis

Posterior muscles of the arm (elbow)

1. Triceps brachii
2. Anconeus

What is the common cause of "Tennis Elbow"

Eccentric overload of forearm extensor muscles

What is the common cause of "Golfer's Elbow"

Repeated valgus stresses on the arm

What are the movements of the wrist

1. Abduction-adduction
2. Flexion-extension

How many bones in the wrist, hands, and fingers

29

Primary joint in the wrist

Ellipsoidal

Wrist ligament sprains are commonly caused by

Axial loading of the palm during a fall

What is the cause of Carpal tunnel syndrome

Median nerve entrapment at the anterior wrist

Movements of the pelvis

1. Rotation in transverse plane
2. Lateral tilt in frontal plane
3. Anterior / Posterior tilt in sagittal plane

Movements of the hip joint

1. Abduction - adduction
2. Flexion - extension
3. Internal- external rotation

Anterior muscles of the hip

Iliopsoas, pectinueus, rectus femoris

Posterior muscles of the hip

Gluteus (maximum, medius, minimus), 6 lateral rotators, hamstrings

Majority of hip dislocations are

Posterior

Common overuse injuries to the hip and pelvis include:

1. Arthritis
2. Bursitis
3. Tendonitis

What is the largest joint in the body?

Knee

Bones that exist in the knee joint are

1. Distal femur
2. Proximal Tibia
3. Patella

Joints of the knee

1. Tibiofemoral
2. Patellofoemoral

What are the ligaments of the knee

1. Cruciate (Anterior and Posterior)
2. Collateral (Medial and Lateral)

Q angle below normal

Bow legged

Q angle above normal

Knee-knocked

A mechanism that defines the tibia externally rotating on the femur during the final few degrees of extension of the knee.

"Screwing Home"

Quadricep muscles are also located and identified as

Anterior knee muscles used to extend the knee joint

Hamstring muscles are also located and identified as

Posterior knee and composed of the bicep femoris containing a long head and a short head

Regarding knee injury, what cruciate ligament is more often injured

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) as compared to posterior

Regarding the knee injury, what meniscus is more often injured

Medial meniscus (as compared to lateral)

What defines the "terrible triad"

Simultaneous injury of the ACL, MCL and medial meniscus

How many articulating bones are in the foot

26

How many ligaments are in the ankle and foot region

100

Characteristics of an ankle joint

Synovial, hinge-type

What is the function of the ankle joint known as the talocrural joint

Dorsiflextion and Plantarflextion in the sagittal plane

What is the function of the ankle joint known as the subtalar joint

Inversion and Eversion in the frontal plane

What is the function of ankle joints known as the mid- and tarsometatarsal joints

Gliding motion

What is the function of the ankle joints known as the metatarsophalangeal and interphalangeal joints

Flexion and Extension of the digits

Tibialis anterior

Inverts the foot

Peroneus tertius

Everts the foot

Identify 4 Ankle Plantarflexors (SGSP)

1. Superficial posterior
2. Gastrocnemius
3. Soleus
4. Plantaris

Muscle fiber type of the Gastrocnemius

Fast Twitch

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